Tripura a state in Northeast India. The third-smallest state in the country and is bordered by Bangladesh(East Bengal) to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. The Kokborok speaking Tripuri people are the major group among 19 tribes and many subtribes. The Bengali people form the ethno-linguistic majority in Tripura.
The area of modern Tripura was ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty. It was the independent princely state of the Tripuri Kingdom under the protectorate of the British Empire which was known as Hill Tippera while the area annexed and ruled directly by British India was known as Tippera District (present Comilla District). The independent Tripuri Kingdom (or Hill Tippera) joined the newly independent India in 1949.
Forests cover more than half of the state, in which bamboo and cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura, which has a limited infrastructure. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product.
Population (2011): 3,671,032
Literacy: 87.75 %
Official language: Bengali and KokborokEstablished: 21 January 1972
Flora and Fauna: Like most of the Indian subcontinent, Tripura lies within the Indomalaya ecozone. According to the Biogeographic classification of India, the state is in the "North-East" biogeographic zone. In 2011 forests covered 57.73 per cent of the state. Tripura hosts three different types of ecosystems: mountain, forest and freshwater. Theevergreen forests on the hill slopes and the sandy river banks are dominated by species such as Dipterocarpus, Artocarpus, Amoora, Elaeocarpus, Syzygium and Eugenia. Two types of moist deciduous forests comprise majority of the vegetation: moist deciduous mixed forest and Sal (Shorea robusta)-predominant forest. The interspersion of bamboo and cane forests with deciduous and evergreen flora is a peculiarity of Tripura's vegetation. Grasslands and swamps are also present, particularly in the plains. Herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees such as Albizia, Barringtonia, Lagerstroemia and Macaranga flourish in the swamps of Tripura. Shrubs and grasses include Schumannianthus dichotoma (shitalpati), Phragmites and Saccharum(sugarcane).
Tripura hosts 90 land mammal species from 65 genera and 10 orders, including such species as elephant (Elephas maximus), bear (Melursus ursinus), binturong (Arctictis binturong), wild dog (Cuon alpinus), porcupine (Artherurus assamensis), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), sambar (Cervus unicolor), wild boar (Sus scrofa), gaur (Bos gaurus), leopard (Panthera pardus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and many species of small cats and primates. Out of 15 free ranging primates of India, seven are found in Tripura; this is the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. The wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) is extinct now. There are nearly 300 species of birds in the state.
Wildlife sanctuaries of the state are Sipahijola, Gumti, Rowa and Trishna wildlife sanctuaries. National parks of the state are Clouded Leopard National Park andRajbari National Park. These protected areas cover a total of 566.93 km2 (218.89 sq mi). Gumti is also an Important Bird Area. In winter, thousands of migratory waterfowl throng Gumti and Rudrasagar lakes.
Weather & Rainfall
The State of Tripura experiences Humid Sub-tropical type of climate.Relatively high temperature, occasional thunderstorms and wind velocities characterise the summer season, which extends from March end to mid May. The average maximum temperature is 34ºC and average minimum temperature is 15ºC. The annual minimum and maximum ambient temperatures recorded at Agartala Airport of the Tripura West District during 1994 are 15.9ºC and 33.4ºC respectively.
The state is a high rainfall zone with the incidence of very high concentration of rainfall (up to 450 mm per day) in the monsoon season, which lasts from June to September. The average annual rainfall in the state is 2024.4 mm (50 years average). Maximum rainfall is generally received in the months of July to September. Intermittent rainfall is received round the year, but the pattern of rainfall throughout the year is not homogenous.
How to reach
By Air:The state capital, Agartala is well connected by air with Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi and Chennai. The airport is 12 kms away from the city. A flight from Guwahati or Kolkata takes about 50 minutes to reach Agartala.The state has three more small airports at Khowai, Kamalpur and Kailashahar where small-chartered planes can land but they are not functional at present. But helicopter service is functional in these places presently.
By Rail: From Lumding, Silchar and Dharmanagar. Passenger Reservation System (PRS) is available at Agartala, Udaipur and Dharmanagar. Unreserved Ticketing System (UTS) is functional in all stations except Mungiakami.
By Road: Tripura is also connected by road with Guwahati via Shillong by national highway no. 44. It takes about 24 hours by road from Guwahati to reach Agartala. Good luxury coaches, both of private travel agencies and public sector Transport Corporation including tourist cabs, jeeps, and small segment cars of all the major automobile companies ply on this road. Agartala is 1645 kms from Kolkata, 587 kms from Guwahati, 487 kms from Shillong and 250 kms from Silchar while the distance between Agartala and Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh) is just 150 kms.